Telemann published the "Kleine Kammer-Music" in 1716 in Frankfurt. This is his second edited instrumental collection: the previous year he had already published the "Six Sonates à Violon seul, accompagné par le Clavessin", written expressly for the violin. Instead, the new collection has a non-unique destination, as stated in the heading: "Kleine | Cammer-MUSIC, | bestehend | aus | VI. Partien, | Welche vor die Violine, Flûte traverse, | wie auch vors Clavier, | besonders aber | vor die | HAUTBOIS".
If the reference to the violin or flute was common, the executive option with a keyboard instrument is more interesting. The preference, however, was granted to the oboe and the collection, which is utterly unique, is dedicated to four of the most famous oboists active in Germany at that time: François Le Riche, Johann Christian Richter, Peter Glösch and Johann Michael Böhm, the last two right in Frankfurt. Although the reference to the flute is normal, we must point out that it is the first score printed in Germany that explicitly indicates the transverse flute. This is curious, if we consider that, in 1716, the instrument had already been in use for a long time: Telemann himself had learned to play it in his youth, after having practised on the recorder.
In the second part of the header, Telemann specifies that the collection has a light and cantabile style primarily thought for beginners, even though virtuosos could perform them adding the appropriate ornamentations. The composer is even more explicit in the introduction. Here he declares, with implicit reference to the oboe: "For this purpose I have kept the range as narrow as possible and avoided both too wide jumps and sounds that are covered and uncomfortable, on the other hand, I have often tried to include the brilliant notes that nature has placed in various places of this delicate instrument. I also cultivated the brevity of the Arias, partly to preserve the energy of the performer and partly to avoid boring the listener’s ears due to the length. Concerning the harmony, I must admit that there is little or no chromaticism, only natural and ordinary progressions, but this was meant only to please those, who represent the majority, who did not go too far in the study of musical science. Finally, I have tried to present something that could meet everyone’s taste".