Rudolf Straube (1717-1780) was a German lutenist and composer. He sang in the choir of the Leipzig Thomasschule under J.S. Bach in the early 1730s, and entered the university at Leipzig on 27 February 1740. Early in 1754 he visited Erfurt and presented various compositions to Jakob Adlung, who described him as a good lutenist, a well-trained keyboard student of J.S. Bach, and one who at that time was interested only in travel. According to Coggin he also became known as a player of the English guitar. His travels evidently took him to London: C.F. Pohl included Straube among a list of musicians active there in 1759.
(Source: Douglas A. Lee, Grove Music Online)